The 11 Most Important Types of Engineering (2023)

There are several Types of engineering : Civil, chemical, mineral, among others. This diversification is due to the great breadth of this discipline.

The word "engineering" Goes back several centuries, specifically to the times of the ancient civilizations, which were characterized by their great constructions. It has its origin in the Latin word 'ingenium', which means wit.

The 11 Most Important Types of Engineering (1)

The first engineering definition was made by Thomas Tredgold In 1828. The engineer and writer defined it as the way to direct great resources of energy of the nature so that they can be used to the convenience of the man.

In a very general way, it can be said that this is a science that is oriented to the study and application of technology with the aim of satisfying the needs of man.

On the other hand, it can also be said that in this profession both the mathematical and natural sciences are used, which are learned through study, experience and practice, in order to develop ways in which those who can Materials and forces of nature for the benefit of the people.

Engineering must be diversified by obligation to fulfill its function of applying scientific knowledge for the development of technological solutions to practical problems. With respect to the most outstanding fields, 11 types of engineering are distinguished.

List with 11 types of engineering

1- Civil Engineering

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Civil engineering is one of the broadest branches. This encompasses the field that ranges from structures, construction and administration of works to transportation, hydraulics, Geotechnical , Environment and topography.

The professional in this area is responsible for carrying out feasibility, projection and management studies, as well as inspection, construction, operation and maintenance of structures.

Among the tasks of a civil engineer are to take charge of civil works such as resistant structures, buildings, houses, bridges, culverts, among others. But also hydraulic works, roads and railways.

It is also dedicated to urban planning works and others related to river, sea and air navigation. On the other hand, civil engineering is also the branch that deals with hydrological, seismic and other studies related to the mechanics of soils and rocks, among others.

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2 - Mineral Engineering

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One of the oldest fields of engineering is the one that has to do with mining and metallurgy. This branch comprises four subfields: mine engineering, metallurgical engineering, petroleum engineering and ceramic engineering.

Mining Engineering

This field of mineral engineering encompasses all aspects of mine clearance: exploration, location, development and operation of these.

The objective is this work is the drilling and obtaining of fossil fuels such as lignite, coal, copper ores, iron, silver, gold, among others. But also the extraction of other minerals such as bauxite, borax, sulfur, calcite, among others.

To carry out this work, it is necessary to have scientific knowledge and special training for the use of equipment such as seismographs and geophysical equipment, as well as heavy and complex machinery.

Professionals in this area must be able to carry out tasks of management, organization and execution of search of reservoirs and exploitation of reserves, among many other things.

Metallurgical Engineering

Metallurgical engineering comprises two broader areas namely, extractive metallurgy and physical metallurgy. The first one is responsible for producing metals from the ore extracted from the mine.

Mechanical, thermal and chemical processes are used to carry out this procedure. Mechanical processes are performed to remove undesirable materials that accompany the mineral. And later in order to obtain pure metal, elements such as fire or electricity are used

The second area is physical metallurgy. This is the process in which metal alloys are obtained from the refined metal produced in the extractive metallurgy. These alloys have special physical properties thanks to the procedures to which they are subjected.

Engineering in oil

This engineering is responsible for all the work that includes crude oil and natural gas. This field is dedicated specifically to the exploration, drilling and production of these two elements, but also of their storage and transport.

It is worth noting that the refinement and processing of petroleum and its by-products are no longer part of petroleum engineering but rather of chemical engineering.

An oil engineer must take care of everything that pertains to the drilling of wells. From the location and mapping of the oil formations to the decision of the site where the drilling will take place.

Ceramic engineering

It is one that applies to the products that are obtained as a consequence of the processing of nonmetallic minerals and their treatment at high temperatures. Experts in this area can perform in virtually any activity where the creation of objects resistant to high temperatures is required.

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An example of such articles may be spark plug motors, jet engine parts, grinding wheels, refractory bricks, windowpanes, dinnerware, etc.

Ceramic engineers are in charge of the formulation, grinding and mixing of the starting materials, as well as the molding of the paste obtained. From this it is possible to obtain objects with the desired shapes.

The specialist in this area is basically responsible for the whole process: from the design and operation of the equipment to the final product.

3- Chemical Engineering

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Chemical Engineering is the branch that is in charge of everything that has to do with the production of compounds and products that for its elaboration requires transformations of the physical and chemical type of the material that composes them.

It deals with the manufacture of substances on an industrial scale from raw materials. This has a close link with some of the subfields of mineral engineering such as oil, ceramics and metallurgy. But it is also related to industrial engineering and food engineering.

Professionals in this area work in a wide variety of industries ranging from chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, perfumes, cosmetics, salts, insecticides, food additives etc. to the petrochemistry Which includes lubricants, fuels, paints, enamels, solvents, synthetic fibers, etc.

4- Mechanical Engineering

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This is the branch of engineering that is responsible for applying the principles of mechanics, physics, materials science, thermodynamics, among others, in the design and analysis of different mechanical systems. That is, in thermal, hydraulic, manufacturing, transport, ventilation systems, among other applications.

The specialist in this field is dedicated to work with both engines and machinery, as well as with automotive, aircraft, heating systems, ventilation, refrigeration, among others.

In addition, the mechanical engineer is a professional who is qualified to perform activities such as study, planning, construction, management, installation, operation, maintenance, repair and inspection of thermal and mechanical systems. It is also dedicated to the development of new processes and technologies.

5 - Electrical Engineering

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Electrical engineering is the branch that is responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electric power. The work of the engineers in this field has to do with the supervision of the operation of the power generation plants and the change of voltage that occurs between the elements of large transmission networks.

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Therefore, the professional of this area has the capacity to perform in all fields that have to do with the production, transportation and commercialization of electric energy.

This involves the industries that manufacture components and those that are dedicated to electrical installations. But they can also be involved in the planning and operation of electric power supply systems.

6- Electronic Engineering

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Electronic engineering is in some way related to electrical engineering. Both engineering are responsible for the study of the electrical phenomenon, as well as the mathematical and physical foundations, the study of electromagnetism, circuit theory and project planning.

However, electronic engineering focuses on the study of the use of electric power for the transmission of information reception and processing. This means that it is the basis of other sub-lines such as telecommunication engineering, computer engineering and automatic control engineering.

The specialist in this field uses electronics to solve some engineering problems such as the transformation of electricity, for the operation of telecommunications devices, industrial process control, telecommunications, among others.

7- Food Engineering

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Food engineering, also known as food engineering, is the branch responsible for studying the way in which raw materials for human consumption can be transformed into products with a longer shelf life.

They do this through processes that comprise food chemistry, physics and biology. The objective of this field is to ensure that these materials can be preserved for a longer time without this implying a loss of their nutritional value.

The tasks of the professional of this branch have to do with the improvement of the food supply, specifically in three aspects: quantity, quality and cost. It is worth noting that food engineering can be developed in a wide variety of fields.

8- Industrial Engineering

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Industrial engineering is responsible for the whole process that has to do with the production of goods or services.

The professional in this area is dedicated to the development of control and cost reduction programs, process design, value analysis, human productivity, materials management, information systems, labor assessment, among many others.

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This branch is developed in various fields such as engineering methods, cost studies, quality control, human resources, economic engineering and information.

9- Sound Engineering

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Sound engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with studying the sound phenomenon. This involves all fields of application of this one such as acoustics, electroacoustics, recording and production, sound reinforcement and the design of electroacoustic systems.

This branch interacts with other disciplines such as physics, mathematics, electronics, computer science, music grammar, among others.

The professional in this area must have an artistic as well as scientific and technological training, since only then can he offer solutions to transdisciplinary problems.

In addition, it must be capable of having a broad and unifying perspective that allows it to understand, transform, create and manage projects around the sound phenomenon, all from a scientific-technological perspective.

10- Military engineering

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This branch of engineering is one that has to do with the application of engineering principles and techniques to different military situations.

It is in charge of supporting both the combat and logistics activities of the armies. This is done through an MCP system, acronyms that mean mobility, countermobility and protection.

Among the tasks of professionals in this area, which must be military, is the construction of bridges, runways, minefields, shelters, fortifications and tasks of water supply, communications and transportation, among many others. But not just this.

Military engineering not only consists in the creation but also in the destruction of any element that can facilitate the advance of the enemy. By doing this, defensive power is increased.

11- Systems Engineering

The 11 Most Important Types of Engineering (12)

This is a branch of engineering that deals with the development of systems and information technologies . To achieve this, it is necessary to make use of a specific computer infrastructure. Systems engineering differs from other branches of this field because it does not deal with tangible products but with logical products.

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For this, the professionals of the area must have different notions, especially mathematics. Because only this way you can translate your ideas in a practical way in real life.


  1. Alunni, J. (Undated). Definition of engineering. Chair: Fundamentals of Engineering. Retrieved from
  2. Introduction to Engineering. (without date). Department of Chemical Engineering. FI UNSJ. Branches and engineering functions. Recovered from


Who is the No 1 engineer in the world? ›

1. Nikola Tesla. Arguably at the top of the list of greatest engineers is Nikola Tesla.

What are the the top 3 hardest engineering majors? ›

What Is the Hardest Engineering Major?
Top 3 Hardest Engineering MajorsTop 3 Easiest Engineering Majors
1. Chemical engineering (19.66 hours)1. Industrial engineering (15.68 hours)
2. Aero and astronautical engineering (19.24 hours)2. Computer engineering and technology (16.46 hours)
1 more row

What is the most important in engineering? ›


One of the most crucial skills an engineer can possess is strong problem-solving abilities. A large part of an engineer's job is assessing a situation, identifying problems and then finding solutions. Employers will want to see that you're capable of handling obstacles in your daily work.

What type of engineer is Elon Musk? ›

Elon Musk has no formal engineering degree, but he clearly is industrial engineer by profession. His approach to business and problem solving is typical industrial engineering approach. His actual degrees (BS in both economics and physics) have good overlap with undergraduate curriculum in IE.

Which country has best engineers? ›

Let's have a look on top 10 countries that produce the most engineers.
Countries No. of Engineering Graduates (approx)
Russian Federation454,436
United States237,826
South Korea147,858
5 more rows
11 Aug 2022

Which engineering is toughest in world? ›

Like chemical engineering, biomedical engineering relies a lot on science rather than physics. With a lot of courses in chemistry and biology, biomedical engineering ranks as one of the hardest engineering majors there is. Many engineering majors focus on physics while this one requires much more than that.

Which engineer is easy? ›

Environmental Engineering

It's considered one of the easier engineering majors that you can study though, because it's not as focused on advanced math and physics.

Which engineering field is best for future? ›

15 best engineering jobs for the future
  • Civil engineer.
  • Chemical engineer.
  • Environmental engineer.
  • Biomedical engineer.
  • Safety engineer.
  • Hardware engineers.
  • Aeronautical engineer.
  • Engineering managers.

Which engineer has highest salary? ›

10 Highest Paying Engineering Jobs
  • Civil Engineer. ...
  • Mechanical Engineer. ...
  • Industrial Engineer. ...
  • Biomedical Engineer. ...
  • Electrical Engineer. ...
  • Chemical Engineer. ...
  • Software Engineer. ...
  • Computer Engineer.
21 Jun 2022

What are the 21 types of engineering? ›

  • Mechanical Engineering. ...
  • Electrical Engineering. ...
  • Civil Engineering. ...
  • Aerospace Engineering. ...
  • Nuclear Engineering. ...
  • Biomedical Engineering. ...
  • Chemical Engineering. ...
  • Computer Engineering.

What are 5 facts about engineering? ›

Eight Fun Facts About Engineering
  • A civil engineer made water slides work. ...
  • Engineers are responsible for the technology behind TV and radio. ...
  • Engineers created the snowboard. ...
  • The history of the word. ...
  • Engineers are responsible for the Ferris wheel. ...
  • Mt. ...
  • Engineers have created special effects for iconic films.
27 Oct 2021

What engineer is Tony Stark? ›

He is an Electronics Engineer. His suit runs on power greater than a nuclear reactor.

What type of engineer is Mark Zuckerberg? ›

Zuckerberg's success has more to do with his personal persistence, hard work, a good idea and luck than it is Zuckerberg's coding prowess. While he's clearly a skilled software engineer and incredibly talented businessman, he's not a "prodigy".

Is Bill Gates an engineer? ›

Yet, many successful company founders and/or CEOs started their careers as engineers: Elon Musk, Bill Gates, Sundar Pichai, Steve Wozniak, Jeff Bezos, Alexander Graham Bell and Henry Ford, to name a few.

Where is it best to study engineering? ›

Top 5 universities for engineering degrees
  1. Harvard University.
  2. Stanford University. ...
  3. University of California, Berkeley. ...
  4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...
  5. University of Oxford. ...
25 Oct 2022

How stressful is engineering? ›

Yes, mechanical engineering is a stressful job.

According to the Bureau of Labor Studies, more than one-third of mechanical engineers work over 40 hours a week.

Which branch is father of engineering? ›

Mechanical branch is father of engineering so we teach father of engineering..

Which engineering has highest salary but easy? ›

Computer Science is the branch of engineering that deals with the curation, design, test, implementation and analysis of computer hardware and software. This is one of the highest paid engineering branches in the country today. The demand for a computer science engineer is immense.

What is the coolest type of engineering? ›

Here are five exciting engineering fields of study, which will lead to excellent careers you won't want to miss.
  • Structural engineering. ...
  • Robotics engineering. ...
  • Environmental engineer. ...
  • Petroleum engineer. ...
  • Aerospace engineer.
23 Jun 2019

What is the happiest type of engineer? ›

Structural engineering

As the chart below shows, of the engineers highlighted in this report, a petroleum engineer not only makes the most money both early and through their mid-career, but they also have the highest satisfaction rate.

What is the rarest engineering? ›

Top 10 Rare Types of Engineering Degrees
  • Ceramic Engineering.
  • Earthquake Engineering.
  • Fashion Engineering.
  • Food Engineering.
  • Mechatronics.
  • Metallurgical Engineering.
  • Plastics Engineering.
  • Polymer Engineering.

Which engineering has less physics? ›

Computer Science Engineering is one of the Best Branches in the Engineering field. It doesn't deal with Physics.

Why is engineering so hard? ›

It's difficult because engineering programs try to prepare their students to enter the workforce. This means teaching them to solve really challenging problems. This requires a lot of studying and perseverance. Usually, it's the math or the workload that students struggle with.

Which year of engineering is hardest? ›

What is the hardest year of engineering? Sophomore year may be considered the most difficult at your school because that is likely the year you begin taking "real engineering" classes and not just math, science, and other general requirements.

Which engineering has more job opportunities? ›

The branch of engineering with the highest earning potential is computer science engineering. There are many branches within computer science engineering like data engineering and software engineering which also have good earning potential.

What is fastest growing field of engineering? ›

Computer Software Engineering

As we move further into the digital age, Software Engineer numbers are increasing annually and it is predicted to be one of the most needed and important jobs of the near future.

What is better engineer or doctor? ›

In Indian culture, being a doctor is considered the highest achievement, followed by an engineer as number two.

Which job has highest salary in world? ›

Anesthesiologists are trained physicians who have special training in preoperative care. This is one of the highest paying jobs in the world. They play a very important role in a surgical procedure, as they must ensure that the patient receives the correct type and correct dosage of anesthesia while under the scalpel.

What job makes the most money? ›

Highest-Paying Careers
RankOccupation2021 Median Wages
Employment column two Annual
1Obstetricians and Gynecologists$208,000+
1Ophthalmologists, Except Pediatric$208,000+
1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons$208,000+
7 more rows

What is the lowest paid engineering field? ›

The Lowest Paying: Civil, Industrial, and Environmental Engineering.

What are the 4 main engineers? ›

Engineering professions typically fall under four different types: chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering.

What are the 7 types of mechanical engineering? ›

Disciplines within mechanical engineering include but are not limited to:
  • Acoustics.
  • Aerospace.
  • Automation.
  • Automotive.
  • Autonomous Systems.
  • Biotechnology.
  • Composites.
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD)

What are the 7 steps of engineering? ›

The 7 Steps of the Engineering Design Process
  • Step 1: Define. In this step, students formulate what they think about the problem. ...
  • Step 2: Ask. The next step in the engineering design process is to ask questions about the problem. ...
  • Step 3: Imagine. ...
  • Step 4: Plan. ...
  • Step 5: Prototype. ...
  • Step 6: Test. ...
  • Step 7: Improve.
8 Dec 2021

What skills do engineers learn? ›

Top Skills for Engineers
  • Technology skills, including understanding various analytical and scientific software.
  • Mathematics and scientific problem-solving.
  • Critical thinking.
  • Effective communication.
  • Management.
  • Negotiation.
  • Decision-making.
8 Nov 2018

What makes good engineers? ›

A great engineer has good judgment on what matters most at any point in time. They're customer focused, not just technology focused. They're ambitious, and they make sure they're solving big valuable problems. This applies not just to what they choose to do, but also to how they do it.

Is engineering hard to study? ›

Considered one of the toughest courses in the world, engineering students are required to have tactical skills, analytical skills, critical thinking, and problem-solving abilities. Engineering continues to be one of the most preferred choices of students after pursuing Science PCM in class 12th.

Is engineering a fun job? ›

Engineering is one of the most rewarding and fun professions in the world. A degree in any engineering field can take you all over the world and help you make a nice salary. An engineering degree doesn't just teach you how to be a great engineer, but rather a great manager, businessman, and entrepreneur.

Who is the best engineering in the world? ›

Top 10 universities for the Engineering and Technology subject area
RankName of InstitutionLocation
1Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)United States
2Stanford UniversityUS
3ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of TechnologySwitzerland
7 more rows

Who is the king of engineering? ›

Mechanical engineering is considered to be the royal branch of engineering as it is the 2nd oldest branch after civil engineering. A mechanical engineer deals with machines and their mechanisms.

Who is the best engineer now? ›

Elon Musk is also one of the greatest engineers of our time. South African-born Canadian engineer, businessman, and inventor Elon Musk formerly co-founded Paypal and is the current co-founder, and CEO of Tesla, the co-founder of SpaceX, The Boring Company, and SolarCity, as well as, the co-founder of Neuralink.

Is Elon Musk an engineer? ›

In 2002, Musk founded SpaceX, an aerospace manufacturer and space transport services company, and is its CEO and chief engineer. In 2004, he was an early investor in the electric vehicle manufacturer Tesla Motors, Inc. (now Tesla, Inc.).

What are the top 5 engineers? ›

Top ten greatest engineers
  • Ada Lovelace (1815–1852) ...
  • Elon Musk (1971–) ...
  • Alice H Parker (1895–1920) ...
  • Ellen Ochoa (1958–) ...
  • George Stephenson (1781–1848) ...
  • Emily Warren Roebling (1843–1903) ...
  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859) ...
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)

Which engineering is easy to study? ›

2) ME - Mechanical Engineering : this branch involves design production and operation of machinery.

Which engineer is best for future? ›

15 best engineering jobs for the future
  • Civil engineer.
  • Chemical engineer.
  • Environmental engineer.
  • Biomedical engineer.
  • Safety engineer.
  • Hardware engineers.
  • Aeronautical engineer.
  • Engineering managers.

Who is a true engineer? ›

True Engineers specialise in the recruitment of mechanical and electrical design engineering professionals within the built environment.

Who is God Father of engineering? ›

Visvesvaraya - The father of Indian engineering | The Economic Times.

Who is the mother of engineering? ›

Civil engineering is called the mother of all engineering branches because it is the most versatile branch. In addition, civil engineering is one of the first branches of engineering developed by mankind and it acts as a platform to other forms of engineering.

Which engineering is most popular? ›

Here are 9 of the most popular engineering careers.
  • Electrical Engineer. ...
  • Industrial Engineer. ...
  • Civil Engineer. ...
  • Chemical Engineer. ...
  • Aerospace Engineer. ...
  • Computer Engineer. ...
  • Petroleum Engineer. ...
  • Environmental Engineer.


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